/ BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS: ADD, ADHD, Sensory Integration,
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), also
known as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD),
is a behavioral disorder characterized by inattention,
hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The ADHD or ADD
diagnosis, based solely on an individual's behavioral
history, is made when several of the following
characteristics are detected: fidgeting with hands
or feet or squirming in seat; difficulty remaining
seated; running about or climbing excessively;
difficulty engaging in activities quietly; acting
as if driven by a motor; talking excessively;
blurting out answers before questions have been
completed; difficulty waiting in turn taking situations;
interrupting or intruding upon others. ADHD or
ADD is thought to be caused by alterations in
dopamine levels in the brain.
integration is an innate neurobiological process
and refers to the integration and interpretation
of sensory stimulation from the environment by
the brain. Children and adults with autism,
as well as those with other developmental / behavioral
disabilities, may have a dysfunctional sensory
system, also known as Sensory Integration Disorder.
Either one or more senses are over- or under-reactive
to stimulation. Dysfunction can occur within the
tactle system (tactile defensiveness); within
the vestibular system (clumsiness, lack of coordination,
fear of movement); and within the proprioceptive
system (falling, odd posturing, clumsiness). These
sensory problems stem from dysfunction within
the central nervous system (brain).
IUCCA UPPER CERVICAL CARE RELATES TO LEARNING
/ BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS
medical science has not determined the exact cause
of learning / behavioral disorders, recent research
has pointed towards a likely trauma-induced origin
for certain cases.1-20
Evidence supports that trauma
(in particular mild concussive injury to the head,
neck or upper back) increases the risk of learning
/ behavioral disorder onset.1-20
Following the trauma, symptoms can be triggered
immediately or can take months or years to develop.
purpose of IUCCA upper cervical care is to reverse
the trauma-induced upper neck injury; thereby
reducing irritation to the injured nerves in the
central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
While many learning / behavioral disorder sufferers
recall specific traumas such as head injuries,
auto accidents or falls, some do not. In certainipediatric
cases, the injury can occur from the normal
birthing process. An upper cervical
examination utilizing Laser-aligned
Radiography and Digital
Infrared Imaging is
necessary in each individual's case to assess
whether an upper cervical injury is present and
whether benefit from upper cervical care can be
Integration Case Studies
ARTICLES AND PUBLICATIONS
Cervical Chiropractic Care for a Nine-Year-Old
Male with Tourette Syndrome, Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Asthma, Insomnia,
and Headaches: A Case Report"
by Erin Elster, DC. Journal of Vertebral Subluxation
Research. July 2003.
Asthma, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Strabismus and
Illness susceptibility: A Case Study in Chiropractic
Management" by William Amalu, D.C. Today's Chiropractic.
read this article, please go to the PacificChiro.com
web site by clicking on the link below***
Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder" by Erin Elster, DC. Women's
Magazine. June 2000.
If Albert Einstein Had Been Prescribed Ritalin?"
by Erin Elster, DC. Atlas Files. March 2000.
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2. Herskovits EH, Megalooikonomou V, Davatzikos
C. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions
associated with closed-head injury predictive
of subsequent development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder? Radiology 1999 Nov; 213: 389-394.
3. Max JE, Arndt S, Castillo CS. Attention-deficit
hyperactivity symptomatology after traumatic brain
injury: a prospective study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc
Psychiatry 1998 Aug; 37(8): 841-7.
4. Max JE, Lindgren SD, Knutson C. Child and adolescent
traumatic brain injury: correlates of disruptive
behavior disorders. Brain Inj 1998 Jan; 12 (1):
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following childhood traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol
Dev Cogn Sect C Child Neuropsychol 1999 Dec; 5(4):
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related to development of secondary attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder after closed head
injury in children and adolescents. Brain Inj
2000 Mar; 14(3): 205-18.
7. Nag S, Rao SL. Remediation of attention deficits
in head injury. Neurol India 1999 Mar; 47(32-9.
8. Mahalick DM, Carmel PW, Greenberg JP. Psychopharmacologic
treatment of acquired attention disorders in children
with brain injury. Pediatr Neurosurg 1998 Sep;
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traumatic brain injury: correlates of injury severity.
Brain Inj 1998 Jan; 12(1): 31-40.
10. Whyte J, Hart T, Schuster K. Effects of methylphenidate
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injury. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
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11. Mateer CA, Kerns KA, Eso KL. Management of
attention and memory disorders following traumatic
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computer-assisted training programme for the remediation
of attentional deficits after brain injury: a
preliminary study. Int J Rehabil Res 1996 Sep;
13. Niemann H, Ruff RM, Kramer JH. An attempt
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traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol Rev 1996
Mar; 6(1): 11-46.
14. Segalowitz SJ, Lawson S. Subtle symptoms associated
with self-reported mild head injury. J Learn Disabil
1995 May; 28(5): 309-19.
15. Arcia E, Gualtieri CT. Neurobehavioral performance
of adults with closed-head injury, adults with
attention deficit and controls. Brain Inj 1994
16. Kessels RP, Keyser A, Verhagen WI. The whiplash
syndrome: a psychophysiological and neuropsychological
study towards attention. Acta Neurol Scand 1998
Mar; 97(3): 188-93.
17. Parker RS, Rosenblum A. IQ loss and emotional
dysfunctions after mild head injury incurred in
a motor vehicle accident. J Clin Psychol 1996
Jan; 52(1): 32-43.
18. Radanov BP, Hirlinger I, Di Stefano G. Attentional
processing in cervical spine syndromes. Acta Neurol
Scand 1992 May; 85(5): 358-62.
19. Radanov BP, Dvorak J, Valach L. Cognitive
deficits in patients after soft tissue injury
of the cervical spine. Spine 1992 Feb; 17(2):
20. Kischka U, Ettlin T, Heim S. Cerebral symptoms
following whiplash injury. Eur Neurol 1991; 31(3):
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