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Case Studies: Alzheimer's Disease (Alzheimers)

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Alzheimer's disease (Alzheimers) is a progressive, degenerative neurological disease of the brain. Alzheimers is the most common form of dementia, accounting for about 70% of diagnosed cases. Specifically, the pathological damage in alzheimers cases occurs in certain parts of the brain -- the hippocampus and frontal lobes--that are responsible for intellectual functioning in the brain, including memory, intelligence, judgment, and speech.


While medical science has not determined the exact cause of Alzheimers, recent research has pointed towards a likely head trauma-induced origin for certain cases of Alzheimers.1-34 Evidence supports that trauma (in particular mild concussive injury to the head, neck or upper back) increases the risk of onset of Alzheimer's disease.1-34 Following the trauma, symptoms of can take years to develop.

The purpose of IUCCA upper cervical care is to reverse the trauma-induced upper neck injury; thereby reducing irritation to the injured nerves in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). While many patients with Alzheimers recall specific traumas such as head injuries, auto accidents or falls, some do not. An upper cervical examination utilizing Laser-aligned Radiography and Digital Infrared Imaging is necessary in each individual's case to assess whether an upper cervical injury is present and whether benefit from upper cervical care can be achieved.

Case Studies

Alzheimers Case Studies


1. Plassman BL, Havlik RJ, Steffens DC. Documented head injury in early adulthood and risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Neurology 2000 Oct 24; 55(8): 1158-66.
2. Lye TC, Shores EA. Traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: a review.
3. Neuropsychol Rev 2000 Jun; 10(2): 115-29.
4. King CE, Adlanrd PA, Dickson TC. Neuronal response to physical injury and its relationship to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2000 Jul; 27(7): 548-52.
5. Han SH, Chung SY. Marked hippocampal neuronal damage without motor deficits after mild concussive-like brain injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000 Apr; 903: 357-65.
6. Emmerling MR, Morganti-Kossmann MC, Kossmann T. Traumatic brain injury elevates the Alzheimer's amyloid peptide A beta 42 in human CSF. A possible role for nerve cell injury. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000 Apr; 903:118-22.
7. Samatovicz RA. Genetics and brain injury: apolipoprotein E. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2000 Jun; 15(3): 869-74.
8. Nakagawa Y, Reed L, Nakamura M. Brain trauma in aged transgenic mice induces regression of established abeta deposits. Exp Neurol 2000 May; 163(1): 244-52.
9. Guo Z, Cupples LA, Kurz A. Head injury and the risk of AD in the MIRAGE study. Neurology 2000 Mar 28; 54(6): 1316-23.
10. Vickers JC, Dickson TC, Adlard PA. The cause of neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Prog Neurobiol 2000 Feb; 60(2): 139-65.
11. Graham DI, Horsburgh K, Nicoll JA. Apolipoprotein E and the response of the brain to injury. Acta Neurochir suppl 1999; 73: 89-92.
12. Nakagawa Y, Nakamura M, McIntosh TK. Traumatic brain injury in young, amyloid-beta peptide overexpressing transgenic mice induces marked ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy and diminished Abeta deposition during aging. J Comp Neurol 1999 Aug 30; 411(3): 390-8.
13. Nemetz PN, Leibson C, Naessens JM. Traumatic brain injury and time to onset of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol 1999 Jan 1; 149(1): 32-40.
14. Myhrer T. Adverse psychological impact, glutamatergic dysfunction, and risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1998; 23(1): 131-9.
15. Dessi F, Colle MA, Hauw JJ. Brain lesions, pathogenic and etiologic hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease. Rev Prat 1998 Nov 1; 48(17): 1873-8.
16. Cummings JL, Vinters HV, Cole GM. Alzheimer's disease: etiologies, pathophysiology, cognitive reserve, and treatment opportunities. Neurology 1998 Jul; 51(1 Suppl 1): S2-17; discussion S65-7.
17. Laskowitz DT, Horsburgh K, Roses AD. Apolipoprotein E and the CNS response to injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1998 May; 18 (5): 465-71.
18. Crawford JG. Alzheimer's disease risk factors as related to cerebral blood flow: additional evidence. Med Hypotheses 1998 Jan; 50(1): 25-36.
19. Taverni JP, Seliger G, Lichtman SW. Donepezil medicated memory improvement in traumatic brain injury during post-acute rehabilitation. Brain Inj 1998 Jan; 12(1): 77-80.
20. Jorm AF. Alzheimer's disease: risk and protection. Med J Aust 1997 Oct 20; 167(8): 443-6. 21. O'Meara ES, Kukull WA, Sheppard L. Head injury and risk of Alzheimer's disease by apolipoprotein E genotype. Am J Epidemio
l 1997 Sep 1; 146(5): 373-84.
22. Schofield PW, Tang M, Marder K. Alzheimer's disease after remote head injury: an incidence study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997 Feb; 62(2): 119-24.
23. Tang MX, Maestre G, Tsai WY. Effect of age, ethnicity, and head injury on the association between APOE genotypes and Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996 Dec 16; 802: 6-15.
24. Adle-Biassette H, Duyckaerts C. Beta AP deposition and head trauma. Neurobiol Aging 1996 May-Jun; 17(3): 415-9.
25. Crawford JG. Alzheimer's disease risk factors as related to cerebral blood flow. Med Hypotheses 1996 Apr; 46(4): 367-77.
26. Kanayama G, Takeda M, Niigawa H. The effects of repetitive mild brain injury on cytoskeletal protein and behavior. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1996 Mar; 18(2): 105-15.
27. Nicoll JA, Roberts GW, Graham DI. Amyloid beta-protein, APOE genotype and head injury. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996 Jan 17; 777: 271-5.
28. Graham DI, Gentleman SM, Nicoll JA. Altered beta-APP metabolism after head injury and its relationship to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1996; 66: 96-102.
29. Jodzio K. Neuropsychological description of memory impairment following cortical and subcortical brain injuries. Psychiatr Pol 1995 Jul-Aug; 29(4): 491-501.
30. Bidzan L, Ussorowska D. Risk factors for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Psychiatr Pol 1995 May-Jun; 29(3): 297-306.
31. Rasmusson DX, Brandt J, Martin DB. Head injury as a risk factor in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Inj 1995 Apr; 9(3): 213-9.
32. Mayeux R, Ottman R, Maestre G. Synergistic effects of traumatic head injury and apolipoprotein-epsilon 4 in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1995 Mar; 45(3 Pt 1): 555-7.
33. Nicoll JA, Roberts GW, Graham DI. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele is associated with deposition of amyloid beta-protein following head injury. Nat med 1995 Feb; 1(2): 135-7.
34. Itzhaki RF. Possible factors in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Mol Neurobiol 1994 Aug-Dec; 9(1-3): 1-13.

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