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Case Studies: Anxiety, Phobia

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Anxiety disorders include panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias and generalized anxiety disorder. Patients with anxiety disorders suffer from symptoms that are chronic, unremitting and usually grow progressively worse if left untreated. Tormented by panic attacks, irrational thoughts and fears, compulsive behaviors or rituals, flashbacks, nightmares, or countless frightening physical symptoms, people with anxiety disorders are heavy utilizers of emergency rooms and other medical services. Their work, family and social lives are disrupted, and some even become housebound. Many ofpatients with anxiety disorders have co-occurring disorders such as depression, alcohol or drug abuse, or other mental disorders.


While medical science has not determined the exact cause of anxiety and phobia, recent research has pointed towards a likely head trauma-induced origin for certain cases of anxiety disorders.1-19 Evidence supports that trauma (in particular mild concussive injury to the head, neck or upper back) increases the risk of onset of anxiety and phobia.1-19 Following the trauma, anxiety disorders can be triggered immediately or can take months or years to develop.

The purpose of IUCCA upper cervical care is to reverse the trauma-induced upper neck injury; thereby reducing irritation to the injured nerves in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). While many anxiety sufferers recall specific traumas such as head injuries, auto accidents or falls, some do not. An upper cervical examination utilizing Laser-aligned Radiography and Digital Infrared Imaging is necessary in each individual's case to assess whether an upper cervical injury is present and whether benefit from upper cervical care can be achieved.


Anxiety / Phobia Case Studies

1. McCracken LM, Iverson GL. Predicting complaints of impaired cognitive functioning in patients with chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001 May; 21(5): 392-6.
2. Goldstein FC, Levin HS, Goldman WP. Cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning after mild verses moderate traumatic brain injury in older adults. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2001 Mar; 7(3): 373-83.
3. Mayou RA, Black J, Bryant B. Unconsciousness, amnesia and psychiatric symptoms following road traffic accident injury. Br J Psychiatry 2000 Dec; 177: 540-5.
4. Van Reekum R, Cohen T, Wong J. Can traumatic brain injury cause psychiatric disorders? J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2000 Summer; 12(3): 316-27.
5. Scheutzow MH, Wiercisiewski DR. Panic disorder in a patient with traumatic brain injury: a case report and discussion. Brain Inj 1999 Sep; 13(9): 705-14.
6. Piccinielli M, Patterson M, Braithwaite I. Anxiety and depression disorders 5 years after severe injuries: a prospective follow-up study. J Psychosom Res 1999 May; 46(5): 455-64.
7. Bryant RA, Harvey AG. Postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury. J Nerv Ment Dis 1999 May; 187(5): 302-5.
8. Thurber CA. Anxiety and closed head injury in young people. Pediatr Rehabil 1998 Oct-Dec; 2(4): 149-55.
9. Berthier ML, Kulisevsky J, Fernandez Benitez JA. Reactivation of posttraumatic stress disorder after minor head injury. Depress Anxiety 1998; 8(1): 43-7.
10. Bowen A, Neumann V, Conner M. Mood disorders following traumatic brain injury: identifying the extent of the problem and the people at risk. Brain Inj 1998 Mar; 12(3): 177-90. 11. Gass CS, Apple C. Cognitive complaints in closed-head injury: relationship to memory test performance and emotional disturbance. J Clin Neuropsychol 1997 Apr; 19(2): 290-9.
12. Emilien G, Waltregny A. Traumatic brain injury, cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Impact of clinical neuropsychology research. Acta Neurol Belg 1996 Jun; 96(2): 89-101.
13. Van Reekum R, Bolago I, Finlayson MA. Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 1996 May; 10(5): 319-27.
14. Barrett K, Buxton N, Redmond AD. A comparison of symptoms experienced following minor head injury and acute neck strain (whiplash injury). J Accid Emerg Med 1995 Sep; 12(3): 173-6.
15. David D, Giron A, Mellman TA. Panic-phobic patients and developmental trauma. J Clin Psychiatry 1995 Mar; 56(3): 113-7.
16. Kuch K, Swinson RP, Kirby M. Post-traumatic stress disorder after car accidents. Can J Psychiatry 1985 Oct; 30(6): 426-7.
17. Silber A. The importance of real trauma on phobic symptom formation. Int J Psychoanal Psychother 1982-83; 9: 553-60.
18. Kruse F. Claustrophobia and agoraphobia as birth trauma neuroses. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 1979 Oct; 28(7): 240-9.
19. Hoffman BF. The demographic and psychiatric characteristics of 110 personal injury litigants. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1991; 19(3): 227-36.


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