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BOWEL DISEASE, IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

DESCRIPTION

Symptoms of bowel diseases such as Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (inflammatory bowel diseases) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome include painful cramping, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, and bleeding.

HOW IUCCA UPPER CERVICAL CARE RELATES TO BOWEL DISEASE

Evidence supports that certain cases of bowel disease, such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome, result from the malfunction of nerves that control the gastrointestinal system (autonomic nervous system and/or enteric nervous system) and/or the immune system, or following trauma to the spine and/or spinal cord.1-15 In each of these cases, it is possible the upper cervical spine is involved since injury to the cervical spine can create malfunction within the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, and the nerves traveling from the brain to the gastrointestinal system.16-32

The purpose of IUCCA upper cervical care is to reverse the trauma-induced neck injury; thereby reducing irritation to the injured nerves that supply the immune system and small and large bowel. While many bowel disease sufferers recall specific traumas such as head injuries, auto accidents or falls that preceded the onset of their symptoms, some do not. In certainipediatric cases, the injury can occur from the normal birthing process. An upper cervical examination utilizing Laser-aligned Radiography and Digital Infrared Imaging is necessary in each individual's case to assess whether an upper cervical injury is present and whether benefit from IUCCA upper cervical care can be achieved.

CASE STUDIES

Bowel Disease Case Studies

RESEARCH ARTICLES AND PUBLICATIONS

"Autism, Asthma, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Strabismus and Illness susceptibility: A Case Study in Chiropractic Management" by William Amalu, DC. Today's Chiropractic. September 1998.
***To read this article, please go to the PacificChiro.com web site by clicking on the link below*** (http://www.pacificchiro.com/pacific_chiropractic_and_research/article_autism_asthma.htm)

REFERENCES
1. Heitkemper M, Burr RL, Jarrett M. Evidence for autonomic nervous system imbalance in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Sci 1998 Sep; 43(9): 2093-8.
2. Tomita R, Munakata K, Tanjoh K. Role of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic inhibitory nerves in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. J Gastroenterol 1998 Feb; 33(1): 48-52.
3. Vanner S, Surprenant A. Neural reflexes controlling intestinal microcirculation. Am J Physiol 1996 Aug; 271(2 Pt 1): G223-30.
4. Knowles CH, Scott SM, Lunniss PJ. Slow transit constipation: a disorder of pelvic autonomic nerves? Dig Dis Sci 2001 Feb; 46(2): 389-401.
5. Roberts PJ, Morgan K, Miller R. Neuronal COX-2 expression in human myenteric plexus in active inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 2001 Apr; 48(4): 468-72.
6. Elsenbruch S, Orr WC. Diarrhea- and constipation-predominant IBS patients differ in postprandial autonomic and cortisol responses. Am J Gastroenterol 2001 Feb; 96(2): 460-6.
7. Sharkey KA, Kroese AB. Consequences of intestinal inflammation on the enteric nervous system: neuronal activation induced by inflammatory mediators. Anat Rec 2001 Jan 1; 262 (1): 79-90.
8. Kobayashi H, Hirakawa H, Puri P. Is intestinal neuronal dysplasia a disorder of the neuromuscular junction? J Pediatr Surg 1996 Apr; 31 (4): 575-9.
9. Lembo T, Munakata J, Mertz H. Evidence for the hypersensitivity of lumbar splanchnic afferents in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 1994 Dec; 107(6): 1686-96.
10. Sanovic S, Lamb DP, Blennerhassett MG. Damage to the enteric nervous system in experimental colitis. Am J Pathol 1999 Oct; 155(4): 1051-7.
11. Ammann K, Stoss F, Meier-Ruge W. Intestinal neuronal dysplasia in adults as a cause of chronic constipation: norphometric characterization of colon innervation. Chirurg 1999 Jul; 70(7): 771-6.
12. Khurana RK, Schuster MM. Autonomic dysfunction in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Clin Auton Res 1998 Dec; 8(6):335-40.
13. Harrison JR, Blackstone MO, Vargish T. Chronic intermittent intestinal obstruction from a seat belt injury. South Med J 2001 May; 94(5): 499-501.
14. Lynch AC, Wong C, Anthony A. Bowel Dysfunction following spinal cord injury: a description of bowel function in a spinal cord-injured population and comparison with age and gender matched controls. Spinal Cord 2000 Dec; 38(12): 717-23.
15. Krogh K, Mosdal C, Laurberg S. Gastrointestinal and segmental colonic transit times in patients with acute and chronic spinal cord lesions. Spinal Cord 2000 Oct; 38(10):615-21.
16. Sato A. The somatosympathetic reflexes: their physiologic and clinical significance. In: Goldstein M, ed. The research status of spinal manipulative therapy. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. 1975:163-172.
17. Kiyomi K. Autonomic system reactions caused by the excitation of somatic afferents: study of cutaneo-intestinal reflex. In: Korr IM, ed. The neurobiologic mechanisms in manipulative therapy. New York: Plenum, 1978:219-227.
18. Klougart N, Nilsson N, Jacobsen J. Infantile colic treated by chiropractors: a prospective study of 316 cases. JMPT 1989;21:281-288.
19. Nilsson N. Infantile colic and chiropractic. Eur Jour Chiro 1985;33:264-265.
20. Coote, J. Somatic Sources of Afferent Input as Factors in Aberrant Autonomic, Sensory, and Motor Function. In: Korr, I., ed. The Neurobiologic Mechanisms in Manipulative Therapy. New York: Plenum, 1978:91-127.
21. Denslow, J., Korr, I., Krems, A. Quantitative Studies of Chronic Facilitation in Human Motorneuron Pools. Am J Physiol 1987;150:229-238 22. Korr, I. Proprioceptors and the Behavior of Lesioned Segments. In: Stark, E. ed. Osteopathic Medicine. Acton, Mass.: Publication Sciences Group, 1975:183-199.
23. Sato, A. The somatosympathetic reflexes: their physiological and clinical significance. In: Golstein M, ed. The research status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office 1975: 163-172.
24. Sato A, Schmidt RF. Somatosympatheitc reflexes: afferent fibers, central pathways, discharge characteristics. Phys Review 1973; 53:916-947.
25. Kiyomi K. Autonomic system reactions caused by excitation of somatic afferents: study of cutaneo-intestinal reflex. In: Korr IM, ed. The neurobiological mechanisms in manipulative therapy. New York: Plenum 1978:219-227.
26. Wick, G., et al. Immunoendocrine Communication via The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Autoimmune Diseases. Endocrine Reviews. 14:539-563, October 1993.
27. Black, P. Immune System - Central Nervous System Interactions: Effect and Immunomodulatory Consequences of Immune System Mediators on The Brain. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 38:7-12, January 1994.
28. Ader, R., Cohen, N., Felten, D. Psychoneuroimmunology: Interactions Between The Nervous System and The Immune System. Lancet 345:99-103, January 14, 1996.
29. Denckla WD. Interactions between age and the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Fed Proc 1978;37:1263-1267
30. Van Dijk H, Jacobse-Geels H. Evidence for the involvement of corticosterone in the ontology of the cellular immune apparatus of the mouse. Immunology 1978;35:637-642
31. Settipane GA, Pudupakkam RK, McGowan JH. Corticosteroid effect on immunoglobins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1978;62:162-166.
32. Korr IM. Sustained sympathecotonia as a factor in disease. In: Korr IM, ed. The neurobiological mechanisms in manipulative therapy. New York: Plenum, 1978 229-268.

 

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