DISORDERS / HERNIATED DISCS
intervertebral discs are cartilaginous plates
surrounded by a fibrous ring that lie between
the vertebral bodies and serve to cushion them.
Through degeneration, wear and tear, and trauma,
the fibrous tissue (annulus fibrosus) constraining
the soft disc material (nucleus pulposus) may
tear or become compressed. This squeezing or protrusion
of the disc has been called herniated disc, ruptured
disc, herniated nucleus pulposus, or prolapsed
IUCCA UPPER CERVICAL CARE RELATES TO HERNIATED
disorders are frequently linked to spinal trauma
in medical literature.1-22
Often, trauma is directed at the neck during auto
accidents, head injuries, sports accidents, and
falls. Because the brain stem contains the control
center for the postural muscles of the spine,
an injury at the upper neck can interfere with
the brain's normal control over those postural
muscles, leading to muscular weakness, atrophy
and spasm throughout the neck and back. Spasm
of the spinal muscles can lead to compression
of the spinal vertebrae, and ultimately to compression
of the cervical, thoracic, and/or lumbar intervertebral
many disc disorder sufferers recall specific traumas
such as head injuries, auto accidents or falls,
which could have injured their spines, some do
not. An upper cervical examination utilizing Laser-aligned
Radiography and Digital
Infrared Imaging is
necessary in each individual's case to assess
whether an upper cervical injury is present and
whether benefit from IUCCA upper cervical care
can be achieved.
Disorders/Herniated Disc Case Studies
ARTICLES AND PUBLICATIONS
Information For Drivers, Pedestrians, and Athletes"
by Erin Elster, DC. The Atlas Files. June 2000.
1. Hamer AJ, Gargan MF, Bannister GC. Whiplash
injury and surgically treated cervical disc disease.
Injury 1993 Sep; 24(8): 549-50.
2. Callaghan JP, McGill SM. Intervertebral disc
herniation: studies on a porcine model exposed
to highly repetitive flexion/extension motion
with compressive force. Clin Biomech 2001 Jan;
3. Adams MA, Freeman BJ, Morrison HP. Mechanical
initiation of intervertebral disc degeneration.
Spine 2000 Jul 1; 25(13): 1625-36.
4. Dai L, Jia L. Central
cord injury complicating acute cervical disc herniation
in trauma. Spine 2000 Feb 1; 25(3):
331-5; discussion 336.
5. Kramer J, Wiese M, Haaker R. Intervertebral
disk displacement and trauma. Orthopade 200` Feb;
6. Weisskopf M, Bail H, Mack M. Value of MRI in
traumatic disco-ligament instability of the lower
cervical spine. Unfallchirurg 1999 Dec; 102 (12):
7. Abumi K, Shono Y, Kotani Y. Indirect posterior
reduction and fusion of the traumatic herniated
disc by using a cervical pedicle screw system.
J Neurosurg 2000 Jan; 92(1 Suppl): 30-7.
8. Katzberg RW, Benedetti PF, Drake CM. Acute
cervical spine injuries: prospective MR imaging
assessment at a level 1 trauma center. Radiology
1999 Oct; 213(1): 203-12.
9. Johansson B. Degeneration of the cervical vertebral
disk is seldom the only cause of disk herniation.
Cause of disk herniation is a common dispute in
insurance cases after whiplash injuries. Lakartidningen
1999 Aug 25; 96(34): 3540-1.
10. Bucciero A, Carangelo B, Cerillo A.
damage in traumatic cervical disc herniation.
J Neurosurg Sci 1998 Dec; 42(4): 203-11.
11. Keiper MD, Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT. MRI
in the assessment of the supportive soft tissues
of the cervical spine in acute trauma in children.
Neuroradiology 1998 Jun; 40(6): 359-63.
12. Kotilainen EM, Karki T, Satomaa OK. Traumatic
cervical disc herniation-tetraparesis in a patient
kicked by a horse. Acta Orthop Scand 1997 Apr;
13. Makela JP, Hietaniemi K. Neck injury after
repeated flexions due to parachuting. Aviat Space
Environ Med 1997 Mar; 68(3): 228-9.
14. Jensen MV, Tuchsen F, Orhede E. Prolapsed
cervical intervertebral disc in male professional
derivers in Denmark, 1981-1990. A longitudinal
study of hospitalizations. Spine 1996 Oct 15;
15. Carreon LY, Ito T, Yamada M. Histologic changes
in the disc after cervical spine trauma: evidence
of disc absorption. J Spinal Disord 1996 Aug;
16. O'Brien CP. Rugby neck: cervical degeneration
in two front row rugby union players. Clin J Sport
Med 1996 Jan; 6(1): 56-9.
17. Zimmer G. A causal relationship between a
collision and an intervertebral disc prolapse.
Dtsch med Wochenschr 1995 Oct 27; 120(43): 1487.
18. Moraes AC, Serdeira A, Pereira Filho A. Soft
tissue injuries associated with traumatic locked
facets in the cervical spine. Paraplegia 1995
Aug; 33(8): 434-6.
19. Jonsson H Jr., Cesarinik, Sahlstedt B. Findings
and outcome in whiplash-type neck distortions.
Spine 1994 Dec 15; 19(24): 2733-43.
20. Pettersson K, Hildeingsson C, Toolanen G.
MRI and neurology in acute whiplash trauma. No
correlation in prospective examination of 39 cases.
Acta Orthop Scand 1994 Oct; 65(5): 525-8.
21. Davis SJ, Teresi LM, Bradley WG Jr. Cervical
spine hyperextension injuries: MR findings. Radiology
1991 Jul; 180 (1): 245-51.
22. Schlegel KF. Undiagnosed fractures and intervertebral
disk ruptures in whiplash injuries. Hefte Unfallheilkd
1971; 108: 32-4.
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