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Case Studies: Menstrual Disorders, PMS, Infertility, Endometriosis, Dysmenorrhea

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Examples of menstrual disorders include Dysmenorrhea (severe menstrual cramps), Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), Menorrhagia (heavy bleeding), Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), Endometriosis (displacement of uterine tissue outside the uterus), and Infertility.


In women, six key hormones serve as chemical messengers that regulate the reproductive system. The hypothalamus first releases the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This chemical, in turn, stimulates the pituitary gland to produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Estrogen, progesterone, and the male hormone testosterone are secreted by the ovaries at the command of FSH and LH and complete the hormonal group necessary for reproductive health.

Evidence supports that certain cases of menstrual disorders result from the malfunction of nerves in the brain and spinal cord (neuroendocrine system) that control the production of hormones. The abnormal hormone levels can be due to a malfunction between the brain, hypothalamus, pituitary, spinal cord, and ovaries, and can be head/neck trauma-induced.1-24

The purpose of IUCCA upper cervical care is to reverse the trauma-induced neck injury; thereby reducing irritation to the injured nerves involved in the neuroendocrine system. While many menstrual disorder sufferers recall specific traumas such as head injuries, auto accidents or falls that preceded the onset of their symptoms, some do not. An upper cervical examination utilizing Laser-aligned Radiography and Digital Infrared Imaging is necessary in each individual's case to assess whether an upper cervical injury is present and whether benefit from IUCCA upper cervical care can be achieved.


Menstrual Disorders Case Studies (PMS, Infertility, Endometriosis, Dysmenorrhea)

1. Berezin M, Ohry A, Shemesh Y. Hyperprolactinemia, galactorrhea and amenorrhea in women with a spinal cord injury. Gynecol Endocrinol 1989 Jun; 3(2): 159-63.
2. Massol J, Humbert O, Cattin F. Post-traumatic diabetes insipidus and amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome after pituitary stalk rupture. Neuroradiology 1987; 29(3): 299-300.
3. Joele LJ, Endtz LJ. Traumatic disorders of pituitary-hypothalamic function. Excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone after closed head injury. A preliminary investigation. Appl Neurophysiol 1975; 38(2): 110-4.
4. Rotkina IE. Gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women in the acute period of craniocerebral injury. Probl Endokrinol Gormonoter 1966 Jul-Aug; 12 (4): 41-5.
5. Grossman WF, Sanfield JA. Hypothalamic atrophy presenting as amenorrhea and sexual infantilism in a female adolescent. A case report. J Reprod Med 1994 Sep; 39(9):738-40.
6. Girard J, Marelli R. Posttraumatic hypothalamo-pituitary insufficiency. J Pediatr 1977 Feb; 90(2): 241-2.
7. Della Corte F, Mancini A, Valle D. Provocative hypothalamopituitary axis tests in severe head injury: correlations with severity and prognosis. Crit Care Med 1998 Aug; 26(8): 1419-26.
8. Childrers MK, Rupright J, Jones PS. Assessment of neuroendocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 1998 Jun; 12(6): 517-23.
9. Iglesias P, Gomez-Pan A, Diez JJ. Spontaneous recovery from post-traumatic hypopituitarism. J Endocrinol Invest 1996 May; 19(5): 320-3.
10. Chiolero R, Berger M. Endocrine response to brain injury. New Horiz 1994 Nov; 2(4):432-42.
11. Woolf PD. Hormonal responses to trauma. Crit Care Med 1992 Feb; 20(2): 216-26.
12. Gunn IR, Beastall GH, Matthews DM. Post-traumatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction presenting with biochemical features of primary hypothyroidism. Ann Clin Biochem 1991 Jul; 28(Pt 4):327-30.
13. Lim HS, Ang BK, Ngim RC. Hypopituitarism following head injury-a case report. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1990 Nov; 19(6): 851-5.
14. Barton RN. The neuroendocrinology of physical injury. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987; 1(2): 355-74.
15. King LR, Knowles HC Jr, McLaurin RL. Pituitary hormone response to head injury. Neurosurgery 1981 Sep; 9(3):229-35.
16. Kosteljanetz M, Jensen TS, Norgard B. Sexual and hypothalamic dysfunction in the postconcussional syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 1981 Mar; 63(3): 169-80.
17. Shutov AA, Chudinov AA, Pleshkova NM. State of the hypothalamo-hypophyseo-thyroid system in severe craniocerebral injuries. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 1980 May-Jun; (3): 23-7.
18. Valenta LJ, De Feo DR. Post-traumatic hypopituitarism due to a hypothalamic lesion. Am J Med 1980 Apr; 68(4):614-7.
19. Landau H, Adin I, Spitz IM. Pituitary insufficiency following head injury. Isr J Med Sci 1978 Jul; 14(7): 785-9.
20. Rudman D, Fleischer AS, Kutner MH. Suprahypophyseal hypogonadism and hypothyroidism during prolonged coma after head trauma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977 Oct; 45(4): 747-54.
21. Winternitz WW, Dzur JA. Pituitary failure secondary to head trauma. Case report. J Neurosurg 1976 Apr; 44(4): 504-5.
22. Wick, G., et al. Immunoendocrine Communication via The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Autoimmune Diseases. Endocrine Reviews. 14:539-563, October 1993.
23. Denckla WD. Interactions between age and the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Fed Proc 1978;37:1263-1267
24. Korr IM. Sustained sympathecotonia as a factor in disease. In: Korr IM, ed. The neurobiological mechanisms in manipulative therapy. New York: Plenum, 1978 229-268.


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