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Messages exchanged between the brain and body (through billions of nerves) guide the transformation of a newborn child into an adult. Each message provides instructions to the child's growing body to provide for immune function, coordination of muscle activity, repair and growth of tissues, respiration and digestion among others.

As with adults, upper cervical (neck) misalignments can have significant effects upon the nervous system's ability to transmit information to and from a child's body.

How can newborns and children develop spinal injuries early in life?

It can begin with the normal birthing process. 1-5 Even during the gentlest of births, presentation of the baby's head through the birth canal requires physical pressure exerted by the mother. This can force the baby's neck to twist or bend causing misalignment of the upper cervical vertebrae.

Often during the delivery, the practitioner will pull or twist the head to assist with the delivery and, in turn, compound the problem.

Mother and Child
Soccer Players

Breech births place the newborn at unique risk for developing upper cervical problems depending upon the presentation and total time of labor.

If the newborn makes it through the birthing process unaffected, the inevitable tumbles and falls of childhood increase the risk of injury to the upper cervical spine potentially compromising brain-body communication.

How can disturbances in neurological communication affect a growing child?

  • Frequent middle ear infections, sinus infections, flus and colds may result from poor neural coordination of the immune response. 6-18
  • Colic may result from compromised neural coordination of digestion. 19-21
  • Torticollis, neck pain, back pain, growing pains, headaches, scoliosis, and other pain syndromes are triggered by abnormal nervous system function. 22-25
  • Attention Deficit Disorder, hyperactivity, chronic fatigue, seizures, cerebral palsy, and autism may result from or be aggravated by decreased blood flow in the brain secondary to abnormal neural reflexes. 26-42

Pediatric Case StudiesP

The purpose of IUCCA upper cervical care is to reverse a child's trauma-induced upper neck injury; thereby reducing irritation to the injured nerves in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). While many parents recall specific traumas their child may have experienced (such as birth trauma, head injuries, auto accidents, sports accidents, or falls), some do not.

An upper cervical examination utilizing Laser-aligned Radiography and Digital Infrared Imaging is necessary in each child's case to assess whether an upper cervical injury is present and whether benefit from IUCCA upper cervical care can be achieved.

Dr. Elster

REFERENCES:
1. Phelan JP, Ahn MO. Perinatal observations in forty-eight neurologically impaired term infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug; 171(2):424-31.
2. Banks BD, Beck RW, Columbus M. Sudden infant death syndrome: a literature review with chiropractic implications. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1987 Oct; 10(5): 246-52.
3. Gottlieb MS. Neglected spinal cord, brain stem and musculoskeletal injuries stemming from birth trauma. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993 Oct; 16(8):537-43.
4. Ratner AI, Marulina VI. Clinical picture and diagnosis of a myotonic syndrome in children resulting from birth injury. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1981; 81(10):1461-6. 5.Tobin A. Latent spinal cord and brain stem injury in newborn infants. Develp. Med. Child. Neurol. 1969;11, 54-68.
6. Coote, J. Somatic Sources of Afferent Input as Factors in Aberrant Autonomic, Sensory, and Motor Function. In: Korr, I., ed. The Neurobiologic Mechanisms in Manipulative Therapy. New York: Plenum, 1978:91-127.
7. Denslow, J., Korr, I., Krems, A. Quantitative Studies of Chronic Facilitation in Human Motorneuron Pools. Am J Physiol 1987;150:229-238
8. Korr, I. Proprioceptors and the Behavior of Lesioned Segments. In: Stark, E. ed. Osteopathic Medicine. Acton, Mass.: Publication Sciences Group, 1975:183-199.
9. Sato, A. The somatosympathetic reflexes: their physiological and clinical significance. In: Golstein M, ed. The research status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office 1975: 163-172.
10. Sato A, Schmidt RF. Somatosympatheitc reflexes: afferent fibers, central pathways, discharge characteristics. Phys Review 1973; 53:916-947.
11. Kiyomi K. Autonomic system reactions caused by excitation of somatic afferents: study of cutaneo-intestinal reflex. In: Korr IM, ed. The neurobiological mechanisms in manipulative therapy. New York: Plenum 1978:219-227.
12. Wick, G., et al. Immunoendocrine Communication via The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Autoimmune Diseases. Endocrine Reviews. 14:539-563, October 1993.
13. Black, P. Immune System - Central Nervous System Interactions: Effect and Immunomodulatory Consequences of Immune System Mediators on The Brain. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 38:7-12, January 1994.
14. Ader, R., Cohen, N., Felten, D. Psychoneuroimmunology: Interactions Between The Nervous System and The Immune System. Lancet 345:99-103, January 14, 1996.
15. Denckla WD. Interactions between age and the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Fed Proc 1978;37:1263-1267
16. Van Dijk H, Jacobse-Geels H. Evidence for the involvement of corticosterone in the ontology of the cellular immune apparatus of the mouse. Immunology 1978;35:637-642 13. 17. Settipane GA, Pudupakkam RK, McGowan JH. Corticosteroid effect on immunoglobins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1978;62:162-166.
18. Korr IM. Sustained sympathecotonia as a factor in disease. In: Korr IM, ed. The neurobiological mechanisms in manipulative therapy. New York: Plenum, 1978 229-268.
19. Kiyomi K. Autonomic system reactions caused by the excitation of somatic afferents: study of cutaneo-intestinal reflex. In: Korr IM, ed. The neurobiologic mechanisms in manipulative therapy. New York: Plenum, 1978:219-227.
20. Klougart N, Nilsson N, Jacobsen J. Infantile colic treated by chiropractors: a prospective study of 316 cases. JMPT 1989;21:281-288.
21. Nilsson N. Infantile colic and chiropractic. Eur Jour Chiro 1985;33:264-265.
22. Bolton PS. Torticollis: a review of etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. JMPT 1985;8:29-32
23. Sloop PR, Smith DS, Boldenberg SRN, Dore C. Manipulation for chronic neck pain: a double blind controlled study. Spine 1982;7:617-628.
24.Arkuszewski Z. The involvement of the cervical spine in back pain. Manual Medicine 1986;2:126-128.
25.Giles LGF. The anatomical basis of low back pain. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1989:58-64.
26.Rosenblum, WI. Cerebral Microcirculation: A Review Emphasizing The Interrelationship of Local Blood Flow and Neuronal Function. Angiology 1965; 16: 485.
27.Krog, J. Autonomic Nervous Control of The Cerebral Blood Flow in Man. J. Oslo. City Hosp. 1964; 14: p. 25.
28.Kobayashi, S., Waltz, A. G., Rhoton, A. L. Effects of Stimulation of Cervical Sympathetic Nerves on Cortical Blood Flow and Vascular Reactivity. Neurology 1971; 21: pp. 297-302. 29.Meyer, J. S., Yoshida, K., Sakamoto, D. Autonomic Control of Cerebral Blood Flow Measured by Electromagnetic Flow Meters. Neurology 1967; 17: pp. 638-648.
30.De La Torre, J. C., Surgeon, J. W., Walker, R. H. Effects of Locus Ceruleus Stimulation on Cerebral Blood Flow in Selected Brain Regions. Acta Neurol. Scand. Suppl. 1977; 64, 56: pp. 104-105.
31.Heiss, W., Hayakawa, T., Waltz, A., Cortical Neuronal Function During Ischeamia. Arch Neurol 1976;33:813-20
32.Astrup, J., Siesjo, B., Symon, L. Thresholds in Cerebral Ischemia -- The Ischemic Penumbra. Stroke 1981;12:723-5
33.Roski, R., Spetzler, R., Owen, M., et al. Reversal of Seven Year Old Visual Field Defect with Extracranial-Intracranial Anastomosis. Surg Neurol 1978;10:267-8
34.Mathew, R., Meyer, J., et al. Cerebral Blood Flow in Depression. Lancet 1980;1(818):1308 35.Mathew, R., Weinmann, M., Barr, D. Personality and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. Br J Psychiatry 1984;144:529-32.
36.Coote, J. Somatic Sources of Afferent Input as Factors in Aberrant Autonomic, Sensory, and Motor Function. In: Korr, I., ed. The Neurobiologic Mechanisms in Manipulative Therapy. New York: Plenum, 1978:91-127.
37.Denslow, J., Korr, I., Krems, A. Quantitative Studies of Chronic Facilitation in Human Motorneuron Pools. Am J Physiol 1987;150:229-238
38.Korr, I. Proprioceptors and the Behavior of Lesioned Segments. In: Stark, E. ed. Osteopathic Medicine. Acton, Mass.: Publication Sciences Group, 1975:183-199.
39.Sato, A. The somatosympathetic reflexes: their pysiological and clinical significance. In: Golstein M, ed. The research status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office 1975: 163-172.
40.Sato A, Schmidt RF. Somatosympatheitc reflexes: afferent fibers, central pathways, discharge characteristics. Phys Review 1973;53:916-947.
41.Selye H, Heuser G eds. Fifth annual report on stress. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956: 25-63. 42.Selye H. Stresss and disease. New York: McGraw-Hill,1956

 
 
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