Syndrome (TS) is a debilitating tic disorder characterized
by frequent motor and phonic tics. Diagnostic
criteria include onset before the age of 21; recurrent,
involuntary, rapid, purposeless motor movements
affecting multiple muscle groups; one or more
vocal tics; variations in the intensity of the
symptoms over weeks to months; and a duration
of more than one year.
Syndrome sufferers commonly experience other behavioral
and neurological complaints such as attention
deficits, depression, self-injurious behaviors,
obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and irritability.
These neurological symptoms are thought to be
due to the same central nervous system (brain
and spinal cord) malfunction that causes TS: alterations
of dopamine and serotonin levels in the brain.
IUCCA UPPER CERVICAL CARE RELATES TO TOURETTE
researchers generally consider TS to be a genetic
disorder (TS vulnerability is transmitted from
one generation to the next), approximately 15%
of TS patients do not show genetic susceptibility
(no genetic links were found).1
In addition, individual variations in character,
course, and degree of severity of TS cannot be
explained by genetic hypotheses alone. Consequently,
researchers have focused upon stressful events
during perinatal or early life that may trigger
the onset of TS.1
Traumatic head injury (during birth, falls, accidents,
etc.) has been implicated as a possible trigger
Evidence supports that trauma
(in particular mild concussive injury to the head,
neck or upper back) increases the risk of TS onset.2-13
Following the trauma, tics can be triggered immediately
or can take months or years to develop.
purpose of IUCCA upper cervical care is to reverse
the trauma-induced upper neck injury; thereby
reducing irritation to the injured nerves in the
central nervous system. While many TS sufferers
recall specific traumas such as head injuries,
birth trauma, auto accidents or falls, some do
not. In certainipediatric
cases, the injury can occur from the normal
birthing process. An upper cervical
examination utilizing Laser-aligned
Radiography and Digital
Infrared Imaging is
necessary in each individual's case to assess
whether an upper cervical injury is present and
whether benefit from IUCCA upper cervical care
can be achieved.
Syndrome Case Studies
ARTICLES & PUBLICATIONS
Cervical Chiropractic Care for a Nine-Year-Old Male with Tourette Syndrome,
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Asthma, Insomnia, and
Headaches: A Case Report" by
Erin Elster, DC. Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research. July 2003.
Bruun RD, Cohen D, Leckman J. Guide to the diagnosis
and treatment of Tourette Syndrome. www.mentalhealth.com.
Bayside, New York: Tourette Syndrome Association.
Keefover RW, Privite J. Adult-onset tourettism
following closed head injury. J Neuropsychiatry
Clin Neurosci 1989 Fall; 1(4): 448-9.
Alegre S, Chacon J, Redondo L. Post-traumatic
tics. Rev Neurol 1996 Oct; 24 (134): 1280-2.
4. Beis JM, Andre JM, Paysant J. Motor and vocal
tic after severe head trauma. Rev Neurol 2000
Mar; 156(3): 289-90.
5. Gaul JJ. Posttraumatic tic disorder. Mov Disord
1994 Jan; 9(1): 121.
6. Adeloye A, Kouka N. Gilles de la Tourette's
syndrome associated with head injury: a case report.
J Natl Med Assoc 1991 Nov; 83(11): 1018-20.
7. Singer C, Snachez-Ramos J, Weiner WJ. A case
of post-traumatic tic disorder. Mov Disord 1989;
8. Fahn S. A case of post-traumatic tic syndrome.
Adv Neurol 1982; 35: 349-50.
9. Krauss JK, Jankovic J. Tics secondary to craniocerebral
trauma. Mov Disord 1997 Sep; 12(5): 776-82.
10. Seimers E, Pascuzzi R. Posttraumatic tic disorder.
Mov Disord 1989; 4(4): 342-4.
11. Chouinard S, Ford B. Adult onset tic disorders.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000 Jun; 68 (6):
12. Tijssen MA, Brown P, Morris HR, Lees A. Late
onset startle induced tics. J Neurol Neurosurg
Psychiatry 1999 Dec; 67(6): 782-4.
13. Factor SA, Molho ES. Adult-onset tics associated
with peripheral injury. Mov Disord 1997 Nov; 12(6):
web site is designed for educational purposes only and is not engaged in rendering
health care advice. The information provided through this website should not
be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. It is not a
substitute for professional care. If you have or suspect you may have a health
problem, you should consult a health care provider. The authors, editors, producers,
sponsors, and contributors shall have no liability, obligation or responsibility
to any person or entity for any loss, damage, or adverse consequence alleged
to have happened directly or indirectly as a consequence of this material.